Firozpur District was part of the Mamdot estate. The capital city, Firozpur, is believed to have been founded by Firuz Shah Tughluq from which the district obtains its name. In 1838, as part of the first Anglo-Afghan war, troops of the British East India Company marched from Ferozepur to Kabul. Seven years later during the Anglo-Sikh War the area was the scene of conflict between the Khalsa army and the British. It has always remained an important place throughout its existence. It has always remained as a border area, earlier between Sikhs and Britishers and now between India and Pakistan.
At the time of Partition of India, Firozpur had a Muslim Nawab and had been ruled by the same Mamdot family for centuries, along with the majority which voted to join Pakistan. In a very controversial move, however, British Viceroy Mountbatten the Firozpur district, and the estate of the Nawab of Mamdot to India, forcing hundreds of thousands of Muslims to flee in the chaos of Partition from Firozpur to Pakistan. This was a very controversial move, and many Pakistanis believe this was an attempt by the British to undermine the survival of Pakistan as an independent state. This move would leave the newly established nation without one single military complex. Most importantly, while the bulk of the fertile land remained in Pakistan, the canal head works and water sources are found in the district. This has caused much tensions between the two countries as India has, time and time again, violated the Indus Water Treaty and hindered water flow to Pakistan, creating hurdles for Pakistan's agriculture based economy. Also,the forceful integration of the region into India allowed Indian soldiers to enter Kashmir. This caused the 1947 Indo-Pakistan war and the War of 1965. Today, Firozpur has a Sikh and Hindu majority with a virtually non-existent Muslim population. Most Muslims left for West Punjab, in the wake of Partition of India while and most of the remainder converted to Sikhism in order to escape massacre at the hands of the Sikhs.
Ferozepur district is one of the twenty districts in the state of Punjab in North-West India.
It comprises an area of 11,142 km². The surface is level, with the exception of a few sand-hills in the south and south-east. The country consists of two distinct tracts that are liable to annual fertilizing inundations from the Sutlej, the only river, which runs along the north-western boundary. The principal crops are wheat, barley, millet, gram, pulses, oil seeds, cotton, tobacco, &c. The manufactures are of the humblest kind, consisting chiefly of cotton and wool-weaving and are confined entirely to the supply of local wants. The other important towns and sea of commerce are Zira, Fazilka, Abohar, Dharmkot, Mallanwalla, Talwandi Bhai and Jalalabad. Geographically it is the biggest district of Punjab. Owing principally to the dryness of its climate (apart from annual rains in September and October), Ferozepur has the reputation of being an exceptionally healthy district. It has second most rice mills in Punjab and used to be big trade centre before partition of India and Pakistan.
Firozpur city is the capital of this District. The Firozpur Cantonment adjoining Ferozepur city combines with the city to give the district its most urban hub. It is one of the oldest cantonments in India